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 Internet Glossary
Solution Absolute URL

Is the full Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource. The absolute URL includes a protocol, such as "http," network location, and optional path and file name. See URL

Analogue

Is one of the two types of signals that phones receive and understand. The other is a digital signal.

Active Server Page (ASP)

Is a document that contains embedded server-side scripting. ASP-compatible web servers can execute these scripts . For the end user, an ASP page is a standard HTML document that can be viewed on any platform using any web browser. A user can easily detect if a site utilizes ASP by detecting a .asp extension in the URL rather than the typical .html.

Attachment

Is a file (text, image or other document) that can be sent �attached� to an email and viewed by the recipient by clicking on an attachment icon. Also see file

Authentication

In a multiuser or �network� environment, the process by whichthe system validates a user's logon information. A user's name and password are compared against an authorized list. If the system detects a match, access is granted to the extent specified in the permission list for that user.

Bandwidth

Is the amount of data received over a given time frame through the Internet connection. The greater the amount of bandwidth, the faster the data can be delivered to the computer.

Browser

Is a software program designed to allow users to visit web sites, download images, and surf the net. Also referred to as a web browser (i.e. Microsoft Explorer, Netscape, Mosaic).

Bulletin Board System (BBS)

In other words, a computerized meeting system. BBS users can have discussions, make announcements, and upload or download files. There are thousands of BBSs around the world. Many of which rely on a direct modem-to-modem connection over a phone line, using a computer.

Cache

Web browsers use a cache system to store web sites that have already been visited. This enables the revisited site�s pages to be downloaded more quickly than upon the initial visit.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface)

A Web server scripting standard; a mechanism used to connect script to Web servers. In the past, most CGI programs were actually script files and were often written in scripting languages like PERL. Today, scripts can also be executable programs. You can write scripts in C and Visual Basic.

Chat rooms

Are online real-time forums that let users communicate with one another as a group. Chat rooms allow live messages to be exchanged instantaneously after they are typed and several conversations can take place simultaneously. This allows for no delays between the sender and recipient. Can also be compared to �party� phone lines.

Cookie

The most common meaning of "Cookie" on the Internet refers to a piece of data sent by a web server to a web browser that the browser software is expected to save and to send back to the server whenever the browser makes additional requests (or visits) from the server. Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the web browsers' settings, the browser may accept or not accept the Cookie. If does accept the Cookie, it may be saved for either a short or a long time.

Cookies may contain data such as login or registration information (i.e. online "shopping cart" information, user preferences, etc.).

When a web server receives a request from a browser that includes a Cookie, the server is able to use the data stored in the Cookie. For example, the server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular users' requests.

Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time, and are usually saved in browser�s memory until the software is closed, at which time they may be saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been reached. Cookies generally are not evasive to the end user; they are used to gather more data about a user and their visits than would be possible without them. In many instances, Cookies can be beneficial to both parties.

Cron Task

Is a scheduled task (on a server). Also referred to a �cron job�.

Cyberspace

The term �cyberspace� was coined by William Gibson, the author of the novel "Neuromancer", a term that refers to the digital world constructed by computer networks, such as the Internet.

Daemon

Is a relentless process that responds to requests as they arrive without any human assistance. Server processes, such as those
for HTTP and FTP, run as daemons.

Data Transfer

Generally speaking is any outward-bound traffic from a web site (except for email) is considered to be data transfer. Each instance
a web page, image, FLASH file, etc. is loaded, data transfer is generated.

DNS (Domain Name System)

The Internet was built on the notion that any computer on a global network can be identified by its numeric Internet Protocol (IP) address. But since people, and not machines, are the primary
users of the Internet, a more people-friendly naming system called the Domain Name System (DNS) was invented. DNS maps a host name like www.hostitcheap.com to the IP address of the machine that hosts the Host It Cheap web site.

DNS is built upon the notion that some server's are "authoritative" (meaning, knows all there is to know) for certain domains. A distributed name server hierarchy, beginning with the root server and ending at the thousands of nameservers active on the Internet, ensures that the naming and directing system works the same from anywhere.

Domain Name

A domain name is essentially a signpost on the Internet. Almost every website you've ever been to, and every email you've ever composed, has used a domain name in its address. People register domain names in order to 'stake a claim' to a particular name -- whether for business or personal reasons.

Once a domain name is registered to a person or company, it is that person's to use exclusively as long as they continue to pay the yearly renewal fee and abide by the terms of use.

* Top Level Domain (TLD)

The portion of a traditional domain name that comes after the dot. So, in opensrs.org, the top level domain is .org.
The generic top level domains (gTLDs) are .com, .net and .org; there are also country code top level domains (ccTLDs) such as .ca, or .uk.

* Second Level Domain (SLD)

The portion of a traditional domain name that comes before the dot. So, in opensrs.org, the second level domain is opensrs.

* Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD)

gTLDs are top level domains that are not associated with
any country. Currently, the only gTLDs in existence are .com, .net and .org. Originally, the top level domain designation was meant to denote whether the domain name was being used for business (.com), charity/non-profit (.org), or for a network (.net). However, with the explosion of the Internet (and specifically, the world wide web) as a new business medium, the lines were blurred, and companies and individuals alike started cross-registering domains (ie. me.com, me.net, me.org) just to protect their interests. Now, .com, .net, and .org names (the generic Top Level Domains) can be used for any purpose.

* Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD)

Every country (and a few territories) in the world has a reserved, two letter country code domain that is theirs to use as they see fit. Some countries run their own ccTLD registry, others outsource it to a private company, and still others sell rights to their ccTLD to third parties to run as
they see fit. Examples of ccTLDs are .ca (Canada), .us (United States), and .to (Tonga). In general, these are registered by businesses with a coincidental link to the TLD in question. For example: .to is used more by Torontonians than Tongans and .tv has more American television content than native Tuvalu culture.

Domain Registrar

A "Registrar" (or "Domain Name Registrar") is an organization like Network Solutions that has control over the granting of domains within certain TLDs (top level domains, like the generic .com/.org/.net or country-specific. ca/.us/.mx etc.).

Domain Registry

The 'Registry' is the system backend that is maintained by the operators of the TLD. Registrar's write new names to a central registry database, from which the authoritative root (essentially, a table of all domain names) is built. In the case of .com, .net and .org, the InterNIC runs the registry, and qualified registrars have shared access to it. In the case of many ccTLDs, the registry and registrar functions are combined within one entity.

Domain Registrant

A registrant is the person or company who registers a domain name. For example, Joe Moses (registrant) registers the name joemoses.com through a registrar who in turn writes the name to the central database or registry.

Domain Renewal

* gTLDs:

Domains are leased on an annual basis, and need to be renewed once the current payment for the lease expires. If a domain is registered on April 15, 2000 and prepaid for one year, it will be due for renewal on April 15, 2001, at which point the registrant either pays for additional years, or lets the name expire. Domains can also be pre-paid for multiple years, up to a maximum of 10 years.

* ccTLDs:

The *.uk registry, Nominet, has set registration and renewal periods for all .uk names at two years.

Domain Transfer

The term 'transfer' has been used to describe various kinds of domain name transfers. Traditionally, simply changing the nameservers providing name service for a domain was considered a transfer. Nowadays, such a modification is more rightly called a modification, and the term 'transfer' describes the transfer of a domain from one registrar to another.

Download

The process of copying data such as pictures, sound files, and text documents from the Internet onto your computer.

E-business

Using the Internet and email to complement your business without necessarily selling products or a service.

E-commerce

Completing business transactions online such as by selling a product or service from your web site.

Email

Also known as electronic mail. Email is sending messages and other files from one Internet user to another.

Encryption

Is a method of allowing data to remain unreadable to everyone except the receiver by encoding the data so that it cannot be intercepted by others. This is an increasingly common way of sending credit card numbers over the Internet while conducting business transactions due to the extra security it provides.

Ethernet

Is a very common method of networking computers in a LAN. There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001, the standard type was "100-BaseT" which can handle up to about 100,000,000 bits-per-second and can be utilized with almost any computer.

Extranet

Refers to a company-owned, private portion of the global network that is only visible to a select group of external parties.

File

Is a named group of data that is stored on the hard drive of a computer or other format.

File Server

A computer running on a network that stores files and provides access to them. Also called a web server.

Firewall

Acts as a security system that protects an internal network by monitoring traffic between an Internet site and the Internet.

Forum

Archived discussion forums relative to any topic accessible via web browser.

FrontPage Editor

Is an application created by Microsoft for the purpose of creating, editing and publishing web pages. In FrontPage 20002 (and earlier versions), you create and edit Web pages in Page view.

FrontPage Server Extensions

Are a set of programs and scripts that support publishing in FrontPage and extend the functionality of a web server. The FrontPage Server Extensions are available for Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) and other popular Windows and UNIX web servers.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

Is a common method of transferring files between two Internet sites. FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible depots of material that
can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp servers". FTP was created and in wide use long before the birth of the World Wide Web and originally was used from a text-only interface.

Gateway

Is used to refer to communications between two different kinds of networks. A computer that handles moving data from one network to another. A process that functions like a door, or gate, for allowing and controlling access to a computer or system

HTML (Hypertext Mark Up Language)

HTML allows web pages to be created over the Internet and refers to a technique for creating links from one file to another.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

HTTP enables the web browser to access a web server on any given computer because they use the same programming language.

Hits

The number of times a web site has been visited. Also the number of times a file of on web site has been requested (i.e. .JPEG, .GIF, .HTML, etc.).

Home page

Acts as an introductory page to a web site, (index.html) providing an indication of the web site content.

Hyperlink

Is text on a web page which, when clicked on, transfers you to another area of the same web site or another location on the WWW

ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities. For more information about ICANN, please visit: http://www.icann.org/

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Is a company that provides Internet connectivity, hosting and e-commerce solutions and domain registry among other services to organizations and individuals (i.e. VodaHost.com).

Icon

A symbol that replaces the need for written instructions and launches an application, program, or performs a hyperlink when clicked.

Internet

A vast network of interconnecting computers connected via telephone lines, cables, or satellites, which provides access and interchange of information.

Intranet

Is commonly refers to a company-owned, private portion of the global network which is available to staff but not accessible to its customers or competitors.

IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)

Is a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots.

Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

Java

Sun Microsystems created Java to be a network-friendly programming language.
Java is quite often used to create large, complex systems that involve several different computers interacting across networks. A good example would be transaction processing systems. Java is also a favorite among programmers for creating programs that run in small electronic devices, such as mobile telephones.

Java is commonly use to create programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer via the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Utilizing small Java programs (called "Applets"), web pages can include many functions such as animations, calculators, and other tricks.

JavaScript

One of the most common programming languages used in web pages is JavaScript. It is used to add features that make the web page more interactive. When JavaScript is included in an HTML file it relies upon the browser to interpret the JavaScript. DHTML (Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language) is a result of JavaScript combined with Cascading Style Sheets(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and later).

Keyword

Is a word or a group of words that describe what you are searching for on the Internet. Keyword queries search for web sites where these words are used most relative.

LAN (Local Area Network)

Refers to computers that are linked together in a set space such as an office or home. Most LANs can connect anywhere up to 500 computers.

Listserv & Majordomo

Listserv, like Majordomo, is a small program that automatically redistributes email to names on a mailing list. Users can subscribe to a mailing list by sending an email note to a mailing list they learn about; Listserv will automatically add the name and distribute future email postings to every subscriber. These programs are also known as list servers.

Mail Bomb

Is a large amount of mail sent to a particular person or system causing this server to potentially crash or crash due to the overload of data.

Megabytes

A bit is the smallest unit of information, indicating the presence or absence of a single feature. A byte is a group of bits processed as one unit of data. A megabyte is one million bytes.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

Originally a standard for defining the types of files attached to standard Internet mail messages. The MIME standard has come to be used in many situations where one computer programs needs to communicate with another program about what kind of file is being sent. Also MIME Types

Modem

Is a device that connects a computer to the Internet or to another computer via telephone line.

NIC (Network Information Center)

Often labeled a department that handles information for a network. The most known of these networks on the Internet is was the InterNIC, which is where most new domain names were registered until that process was decentralized to a number of private companies.

Net

Abbreviation of Internet.

Netiquette

Unofficial rules and conventions of email and chat room etiquette.

Netizen

Referring to a citizen of the Net. The term implies civic responsibility and participation.

Network

Two or more computers linked together physically or via telecommunications for the purpose of electronically sharing resources such as computer files, programs, peripheral devices, and either centralized or distributed services.

Network Location

In a URL, a unique name that identifies an Internet server. A network location has two or more parts, separated by periods, as example.VodaHost.com. Also called the host name and Internet address. See also URL.

Newsgroup

The name for discussion groups on USENET.

Nominet

The Nominet is the registry for all .uk domain names, serving a simlar function as the NSI registry does for the gTLDs.

Node

Is any single computer connected to a network.

OC3, OC12, OC48

OC stands for Optical Carrier and is used as a measurement of transmission capacity for a particular circuit. An OC3 circuit can transmit 155 Mbits in each direction. An OC12 can transmit four times as much data as an OC3, for a capacity of 620 Mbits. An OC 48 can transmit four times as much data as an OC12.

Offline

Refers to a device or function that is not electronically connected to the main device or network. Many operations are performed offline to protect sensitive data or processes from users of publicly accessible networks, such as the Internet, or from unauthorized users on a local network.

On-line

Refers to the period of time when you are connected to the Internet through your telephone line.

Open Source Software

Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed

PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

Is a popular encryption package. See encryption

PHP

PHP is a widely used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML. For examples, please visit http://www.php.net/ .

POP3 (Post Office Protocol)

Is a system which allow you to copy email from the Internet to another computer. A POP3 mail account often refers to an email account.

Password

Is used as a security measure to restrict access to computer systems, sensitive files, or a shell or PPP account. On the World Wide Web, passwords allow site visitors access to Internet services, such as FTP, if the Internet service requires authentication. See also authentication

Portal

Describes a web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the web (i.e. msn.com, yahoo.com , excite.com, etc.). A portal usually has a catalog of categories according to web sites genre, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email, chat, homepages and other services to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" to the Web.

Proxy Server

A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks

Router

Is a special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.

Registration Service Provider (RSP)

Under the OpenSRS model, the Registration Service Provider resells domain names through OpenSRS and sells them to individuals or businesses. RSPs are generally Internet based service providers, either running a domain registration business as a 'value add' to their core business, or in some cases, as their core business. RSPs also provide all technical support to domain registrants.

Search Engine

Is an online database of Internet resources which enables you to find the web site you are looking for without knowing the exact address of the web site or company.

Server

Is a host computer that holds data to be shared over a network and responds to requests for information. Also refers to the software which is used to provide
information.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet. SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later RFC's.

Spam

Unsolicited email duplicated to many people at once, usually advertising goods or offering services. Deeply frowned upon by most Internet users and not tolerated by most providers/uplinks.

SQL (Structured Query Language)

A specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.

Surf the Net

A term used to describe browsing online from one web site to another.

Sysop (System Operator)

Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.

T-1

A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LANs to the Internet.

T-3

A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second.

Telnet

The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.

Unix

A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). Unix is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

The address of a web page (i.e. www.VodaHost.com). All web sites have URLs.

USENET

A worldwide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet. USENET is completely decentralized, with thousands of discussion areas, called newsgroups.

User name

This is the name that you choose as a way for the computer system to identify you. Also known as a user-id.

Virtual Server

Is one of multiple web sites running on the same server, each with a unique domain name and assigned IP address. A web server that supports virtual servers is called a multi-hosting web server, also called shared hosting server.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

Is a technology that enables mobile phone users to look at specially converted web pages, order goods from the Internet and use email from their phone screens.

Web cast

A method for businesses and organizations to use the Internet to broadcast information.

Web Certificate

Is a digital id card issued by a Certificate Authority that binds a public/private key pair with a signed document from the Certificate Authority. It may also include relevant software for the use of the certificate. Without the right software, the certificate is worthless. Also relevant to SSL and Encryption.

Web Hosting

The placement of the user�s website files onto the Internet through a web server. To purchase a hosting plan please click here.

Web page

Is a single page of data within a web site. These are the basic building blocks of web sites, representative to pages in a book, pamphlet, magazine or other form of literature.

Web site

A collection of related web pages found at a single address.

Webmaster

The person who is responsible for upkeep of a web site and managing the content.

WHOIS

WHOIS databases contain nameserver, registrar, and in some cases, full contact information about a domain name. Each registrar must maintain a WHOIS database containing all contact information for the domains they 'host'. A central registry WHOIS database is maintained by the InterNIC. This database contains only registrar and nameserver information for all .com, .net and .org domains.

www (World Wide Web)

Is a collection of text, pictures, sounds, video clips, graphics and other information arranged in pages and linked together via the Internet.


Article Details
Article ID: 62
Created On: 10 Oct 2005 03:55 PM

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